The Role of Proprotein Convertases in Animal Models of Skin Carcinogenesis PDF (Adobe DRM) download by Daniel E. Bassi

The Role of Proprotein Convertases in Animal Models of Skin Carcinogenesis

Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences
Publication date: September 2012
ISBN: 9781615045099
Digital Book format: PDF (Adobe DRM)

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Many proprotein convertases (PC), especially furin and PACE4, are involved in pathological processes such as viral infection, inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer, and have been postulated as therapeutic targets for some of these diseases. In this chapter, we review mostly our work using animal models of squamous cancers that have been induced by chemical or UV carcinogenesis protocols to highlight the role of PCs in the development and progression of experimental tumors. After demonstrating in wild-type mice the role of PACE4 in tumor progression, as well as detecting the expression of PACE4 and furin in human non-melanoma skin cancers, we developed transgenic mice that overexpress either PACE4 or furin in squamous epithelia, including the epidermis. This was accomplished by targeting the expression of the corresponding PC by using the promoter of the bovine keratin 5. Both K5-PACE4 and K5-Furin transgenics showed increased susceptibility to a two-stage carcinogenesis protocol of chemical carcinogenesis. Similar studies conducted in K5-PACE4 mice also showed an increased sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation carcinogenesis. In most of these experiments we were able to demonstrate that compared to the control wild-type mice, the overexpression of the transgene in the epidermis increased the number of benign and malignant skin tumors and also had an effect on tumor progression, as evidenced by the presence of less differentiated tumors and more frequent local and distant metastases in many of the transgenic lines. Interestingly, double transgenic mice in which PACE4 and furin are expressed in the epidermis did not show any additive effect, pointing to a probable in vivo overlap of functions at least in the cutaneous tissues. These enhancing effects of PACE4 and furin further support their possible role as therapeutic targets that have been further substantiated by in vivo experiments in which the PC inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone was topically administrated to the skin of wild-type and transgenic mice treated with chemical carcinogenesis protocols, resulting in a significant decrease of tumor development and progression.
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